“Allah is not satisfied with disbelief for his servants.” (Sura Az-Zumar 39:7)
“Surely, Allah does not forgive that a partner is ascribed to Him, and He forgives anything short of that for whomsoever He wills. Whoever ascribes a partner to Allah commits a terrible sin.” (Sura the women 4.48)
We need to know about disbelief to protect ourselves from it and not to accuse others of it.
In the Arabic language Kufr means to cover up or hide. A farmer is known as a kafir because he covers seeds in the ground.
In the sacred law kufr/disbelief is to deny anything that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) brought, with the condition that it is definite and two to deny or refuse something that is definite
This is either something well known about the religion to the Ashari’s or something that is just definite to the Maturidi’s.
Others say it is to deny something that is well-known by Islam, for example to deny fasting during Ramadan
Something definite is something that is in the Quran or widely transmitted hadith.
The Ashari’s and the Maturidi’s are two groups of Sunni theological belief and the main groups of this time
There is major and minor disbelief:
Major is disbelief as described above
Minor is when someone is an ingrate about blessings
The conditions for disbelief/kufr are:
1. Sanity: a person has to be sane, an insane persons is not taken to task
2. Awake: if they say it in their sleep, it does not count
3. Forced: if someone is forced then it does not count
The definition of faith/Imam is acceptance of the heart with affirmation on the tongue
With the conditions:
1. Not to do an action of disbelief.
2. And not to jest about it. (jest about religious matters)
The levels of disbelief/kufr are:
1. Kufr Inkari/ Denial disbelief: denies belief
2. Kufr ‘Inadi/ beliefs inside but rejects on his tongue like Abu Jahl
3. Kufr juhudu/ungrateful disbelief: knows the beliefs and rejects
4. Kufr Nifaq/hypocrisy disbelief: no belief but he says he is a believer
Action does not take one out of Islam as action is not included in faith according to the Maturdi’s.
To disbelief in Allah someone has to give him human attributes
Disbelief in the Prophets (upon them peace) is to deny their prophethoods which have been accepted by consensus. Examples which are not accepted by consensus are Dhulqarnan, Dhulqifal, Luqman and Khidr.
Disbelief about religion is to say something is halal/permissible when it is prohibited/haram. For example to say fornication is halal without marriage
Disbelief about the companions is say that a companion is going to hell when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said they are going to paradise, like the ten promised paradise and the Bayat ul-Ridwan/the oath of acceptance. Cursing the companions does not constitute to disbelief but denying that Abu Bakr as a companion does, because he mentioned in the Quran during the migration to Medina. Also to say that the Angel Gabriel made a mistake and should have gone to Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) instead.
Disbelief about scholars is when someone hates a scholar without valid reason. Also to make fun of the circles of knowledge or to say something else is better than Islamic knowledge.
Black magic is a major wrong action but is not disbelief unless you think that it has a power on its own.
A person can fall into disbelief but disbelief does not fall onto a person
A word of disbelief does not mean that the person leaves Islam and the only person who judge this is a Judge/Qadi. The Qadi has to know one school correctly, some information of other schools and he has to be close to someone who can derive his own rulings a mujtahid.
It is not permissible for an average person to call another Muslim a disbeliever because the hadith prevents us. “If a man calls his brother a disbeliever then one of them deserves the description.” (Key to Paradise page 78 hadith from Bukhari 6045, 6103 and Muslim 60, 61)
The prophetic narration, "The difference between a man and disbelief; is leaving prayer." (Muslim) Ibn Abbas was asked about this and he said this was about kufr an-Na'ma/ingratitide of blessings; minor not major disbelief.
No one can guarantee that they will die on Islam
A person who has pronounced the words of disbelief must:
1. Repent to Allah
2. Repeat testification of faith: “There is no deity except Allah...”
3. Reject previous position
4. Re-marry if necessary
5. Repeat necessary actions like Hajj – disbelieve will destroy all their previous actions
To protect ourselves from disbelief you can say the following:
اللهم إني أعوذُ بِك ان أُشركَ بِك شيئٌ وأنا أعلمُ وأستغفرُكَ لِما لا أعلم وأنتَ علام الغيوب
O’Allah I seek refuge with you; if I have associated with you anything; and I know; and I seek forgiveness to what I do not know; and you know the unseen.
Allahumma inni aa'du bik an urshrika bik shayyan wa ana a'lamu wa astaghfiruka lima la a'lamu wa anta 'alam al-ghayub